Proton source

Taking a closer look at LHC

The proton sourcis where it all starts at CERN.

(A new system will be running at Linac4 after the Long Shutdown 2 - 2019-2020 )

"To make the protons", physicists inject hydrogen gas into the metal cylinder -Duoplasmatron-  then surround it with an electrical field to break down the gas into its constituent protons and electrons. This process yields about 70 percent protons.

We can simplify the process as follows:

H2 + e-  →  H2+ + 2e-

H2+ + e-  →  H+ + H + e-

H + e-  →  H+ + 2e-

H2   →   2 H+ + 2e-

For the LHC beam, we need:

2808 bunches x 1.15·1011 = 3·1014   protons per beam

or,  1014  protons for the two beams   (1)

A single cubic centimetre of hydrogen gas at room temperature contains

with  P = 105 Pa   ,,   V = 10-6 m3   ,,   T=293 K

using   P·V = n·R·T  -

n = 4·10-5 moles   ,,     N = 4·10-5 x 6·1023 = 2.4·1019 molecules

So,  about 5·1019 atoms of hydrogen      (2)

Taking into account (1) and (2), the LHC can be refilled about 100000 times with just one cubic centimetre of gas – and it only needs refilling twice a day!

The particles are accelerated by a 90 kV supply and leave the Duoplasmatron with 1.4% speed of light, i.e. ~ 4000 km/s.

Then they are sent to a radio frequency quadrupole, QRF -an accelerating component that both speeds up and focuses the particle beam. From the quadrupole, the particles are sent to the linear accelerator (LINAC2).

A small commercial hydrogen cylinder contains about 5 kg of gas. So the amount of hydrogen molecules is:

n =  5000/2 = 2500 moles

2500  x 6·1023 = 1.5·1027 molecules

N = 2 x 1.5·1027 = 3·1027 atoms

Taking into account that the process yields about 70% protons we have:

0,7 x 3·1027 = 2.1 ·1027atoms

With (1), this cylinder can be used:

2.1·1027 / 6  ·10143.5·1012  times

Since the LHC is filled every ten hours, this cylinder could be used for:

10 x 3.5·1012  = 3.5·1013 hours

The hydrogen will diffuses out of the bottle faster.

A we said at the top, a new ion source (providing in this case H-) will be working in the new linear accelerator, Linac4.

1.34 x 1020 protons were accelerated in the accelerator complex in 2016. This might sound like a huge number, but in reality it corresponds to a minuscule quantity of matter, roughly equivalent to the number of protons in a grain of sand. In fact, protons are so small that this amount is enough to supply all the experiments. The LHC uses only a tiny portion of these protons, less than 0.1%, as shown in the diagram.

Taken from the Annual Report 2016 - CERN Document Server

 AUTHORS Xabier Cid Vidal, PhD in experimental Particle Physics for Santiago University (USC). Research Fellow in experimental Particle Physics at CERN from January 2013 to Decembre 2015. Currently, he is in USC Particle Physics Department ("Ramon y Cajal", Spanish Postdoctoral Senior Grants). Ramon Cid Manzano, secondary school Physics Teacher at IES de SAR (Santiago - Spain), and part-time Lecturer (Profesor Asociado) in Faculty of Education at the University of Santiago (Spain). He has a Degree in Physics and in Chemistry, and is PhD for Santiago University (USC). CERN CERN WEBSITE CERN Directory CERN Experimental Program Theoretical physics (TH) CERN Physics Department CERN Scientific Committees CERN Structure CERN and the Environment LHC LHC Detector CMS Detector ATLAS Detector ALICE Detector LHCb Detector TOTEM Detector LHCf Detector MoEDAL

IMPORTANT NOTICE

For the bibliography used when writing this Section please go to the References Section

© Xabier Cid Vidal & Ramon Cid - rcid@lhc-closer.es  | SANTIAGO (SPAIN) |