According (1), the more energy virtual particle ‘borrows’ from de vacuum (so the more mass they have) the shorter the time they can exist.
For each interaction there is a carrier particle (fundamental boson) associated with quantum excitations of the force field corresponding to that interaction. They are virtual particles that form out of vacuum field, as it was said above.
Because photon and graviton are massless the electromagnetic and gravitational interaction can reache infinite distance. However, the big masa of carrier particles for weak interaction implies very short duration and very short distance. The case of strong interaction is different and it's related to the special characterisitics of the strong charge.
Gluons are carrier particles for strong interactions (color force fields), photons are carrier particles of electromagnetic interactions, the W and Z bosons are carrier particles for weak interactions, and gravitons are proposed as carrier particle for gravitational interaction.
The next animation shows a muon decay through a virtual W :